Sex, Drugs and Rock 'N Roll: The Real Story

Sex, Drugs and Rock ‘n Roll is a common dream that few will know; but many try and so the story goes, that there’s riches there in the backstage glow. But looking in subjectively, one must put down the cell phone, the remote and the Wii, for things in the spotlight are never what they seem- when it comes to the combination of these infamous three.

It’s a tempting image we’ve too often seen; fans by the millions who clamor and scream; for a glimpse, just a touch or a kiss on the cheek; there’s no shortage of groupies and their big rock-star dreams. So backstage they go to embrace beneath the sheets; neither star nor fan knowing if the other is clean. Just ask Freddy Mercury of Queen or the legend Easy E, or ponder the math of promiscuity. The more sex one has the more threats one will see; the chances for most are about 1 in 3.

Of course, the risk is increased when one factors in drugs, which diminish good judgment and moral aplomb. To this many a rock star can certainly attest, with unwanted pregnancies, herpes, syphilis and the rest.

But if the threat of disease isn’t enough, consider the sexual dysfunction that could be caused by drugs; with repeated use the good feelings fade – until sex feels like nothing and relationships become strained. Then all that’s left is to get high and play; but the music, like sex, is empty and grey.

This is the way so many rock stars go; they hide in the weed, the booze and the coke. They wait for salvation in the fame or the dough, but round and round with the drugs they still go. It’s a tired old story with so many names, of rock ‘n roll legends this disease has claimed;

Janis Joplin overdosed on heroin and Hendrix choked on his own puke – while passed out and delirious on ‘barbs and on booze. John Bonham from Led Zeppelin would likewise follow suit, and choke on his vomit after 40 shots of booze. Jay Bennett, from Wilco; lost to overdose, not long after Wes Berggren from Tripping Daisy died from cocaine and ‘benzos.

Steve Clark from Def Leppard, Kevin DuBrow from Quiet Riot, both died far too young from a cocaine-based diet. Slipknot’s Paul Grey died from morphine and pills, while Sublime lost their front-man to a heroin thrill. It was heroin too, that took Kurt Cobain and bassist friend Pfaff; the loss to the grunge scene marred its future and past.

Some groups have lost more than one member to the scourge of addiction, the call of drug abuse – The Pretenders, The Grateful Dead, Alice in Chains and The Who – were all scarred forever when their deaths numbered 2. But it’s not a problem isolated to just these few; The Temptations, Sex Pistols, AC/DC, Blues Traveler, Weezer, Mad Season, Avenged Sevenfold and Red Hot Chili Peppers all lost members too.

So it’s clear to the people and plainly we must see, that the image of fame is not presented impartially. And though the story won’t change and it’s long as it goes, there’s still the allure of Sex, Drugs and Rock ‘n Roll.

The Paradox of Drug Abuse and Euphoria

One of the most significant reasons that people abuse drugs is for the euphoric effects they provide. While many might argue that people use substances to escape reality, to cope with stress and an unlimited number of other reasons, the fact of the matters is that euphoria makes these things possible: drugs cause people to feel good, even if they weren’t necessarily feeling bad to begin with. Unfortunately, the neurological nature of addiction tells us that substance abuse actually makes it more challenging for people to feel euphoria, happiness and contentment.

How Drug Abuse Works: Understanding the Role of Dopamine

The following is a highly simplified explanation of the processes at work when a person abuses drugs:

1.) Drug is consumed which sends signals to neurons in the brain to release the neurotransmitter dopamine (or others in some cases).

2.) Dopamine binds with specialized receptors and produces a feeling of well-being, contentment and euphoria.

3.) Drugs prevent dopamine re-uptake, essentially leaving the substance in the brain for much longer than would ever occur in a natural environment.

4.) Dopamine stimulates the reward center of the brain, which creates a contextual log of the event to use as cues to prompt the user to repeat the behavior. (This is based on the theory that addiction is a byproduct of an innate evolutionary survival mechanism.)

And with these four steps, the groundwork for addiction has been laid.

Tolerance: Another Evolutionary Survival Mechanism

In order to offset the effects of chemical substances, the central nervous system will make changes to receptors and neuronal circuitry to create a resistance to the drug. This can be accomplished by making fewer receptors available, altering the structure of receptors, limiting or restricting their ability to bind to neurotransmitters, or by “disconnecting” parts of neuronal circuits.

The chemical resistance created by adaptations at the neuronal level means that the user will obtain less and less euphoric effect because the CNS essentially views the drug as an invading foreign substance that interferes with the proper working functions of the brain. Of course, this is exactly what drug abuse is; persistent self-inflicted poisoning.

In order to offset the euphoria-limiting effects of tolerance, drug users will simply increase their dosages accordingly. This prompts more changes in neurons – changes that by this point are becoming permanent for many addicts. Ultimately, these changes only make it harder to feel euphoria and generally lead to depression, thoughts of suicide, feelings of worthlessness and other debilitating emotions.

In fact, feelings that are specific to certain drugs, such as high-energy to cocaine, relaxation to marijuana and joy to opiates, are often reversed as the body becomes tolerant to the drugs that cause these responses. This is especially true when an addict suddenly stops using; by forcing drugs into their bodies for so long, they have effectively developed a tolerance to the very feelings they sought to achieve with their substance abuse in the first place.

To summarize, drug abuse can destroy a person’s ability to feel good. And because addiction often comes with repeated relapse events, each successive period of active drug addiction results in additional, permanent changes within the brain – changes that can have a lasting effect on the emotional and mental well-being of the user for the rest of their lives.

This isn’t information to be used as a scare tactic to keep people away from drugs; it’s nothing more than science expressed. People take drugs to feel good, but once addicted those feelings become harder and harder to achieve, even long after active drug use has stopped. This is why it is absolutely critical that if you or someone you love is abusing drugs, they must stop now. With each passing day and each successive “high,” the one thing that they seek – happiness – becomes more difficult to come by; often leading to personal disaster.

The ultimate paradox of drug abuse is that it robs from you what you seek from it.

The Differences Between Acute and Post Acute Withdrawal

In simple terms, the primary difference between acute and post acute withdrawal is the severity and potential consequences of related symptoms. As the key words indicate, acute withdrawal is generally more severe than post-acute withdrawal. However, both conditions are in actuality different stages of the disease of addiction: first comes active addiction, followed by cessation and acute withdrawal and finally transitioning to post acute withdrawal. Although part of the same disease, these conditions should be made distinct to addicts and those in recovery and the people who support them.

Primary Difference: Risk of Serious Medical Complications

The most important difference between acute and post acute withdrawal is the potential consequences of symptoms that may arise. During acute withdrawal syndrome or AWS, symptoms can be severe; in fact, symptoms of detox and withdrawal from some drugs can cause life-threatening complications. These include alcohol, (Louis A. Trevisan, M.D., Nashaat Boutros, M.D., Ismene L. Petrakis, M.D., and John H. Krystal, M.D. Complications of Alcohol Withdrawal National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) benzodiazepines (Lann MA, Molina DK, A Fatal Case of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal National Center for Biotechnology Information) and barbiturates. For some people withdrawing from these substances can cause seizures, respiratory depression, heart attack, coma, delirium tremens and rarely, death.

While post acute withdrawal symptoms do not generally pose risk of death or even serious medical symptoms, the condition does cause severe disruptions in the lives of many people in recovery. In some cases symptoms may require medication in order to successfully manage, while in others a healthy diet and plenty of exercise allow for a strong recovery plan. In fact, some people in recovery report little to no PAWS symptoms at all.

Acuity of Urge to Abuse Substances

One of the most troubling symptoms of both AWS and PAWS is a strong, compelling desire to use drugs or drink again. These types of powerful feelings are strongest during the early stages of clinical withdrawal and slowly taper off over a period of about 5 days to 2 weeks. After this time drug or alcohol cravings may still arise and they may even be consistently present, however, they are rarely as compelling during PAWS as during AWS.

However, like AWS, the desire to abuse drugs is often at its peak during the early stages of PAWS and slowly lessens over time. This is one of the reasons that most people attend treatment in the following manner:

Stage 1: Immediate drug abuse cessation and resulting clinical withdrawal, with potential for serious medical complications. Treatment consists in most cases of a professional detox program lasting for 5 to 10 days.

Stage 2: Upon completion of detox (drugs are no longer in the person’s system) patients attend longer-term treatment, during which time post acute withdrawal symptoms set in. These symptoms theoretically are at their worst levels during this time. Most rehab programs post-detox are around 30-90 days in duration, by which time the severity of PAWS symptoms should have subsided enough to safely permit the person to reintegrate with their communities. (Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University Post Acute Withdrawal Syndrome)

Stages of the Same Disease

In reality there is little true difference between acute withdrawal and post withdrawal: they are both part of the disease of addiction. In the early days of recovery, symptoms are at their most severe points. As recovery progresses, symptoms lessen, gradually shifting away from physical symptoms, and instead transitioning into longer-term mental and emotional symptoms. While these symptoms may not prompt the need for serious medical care, they do cause many addicts to relapse and thereby start the entire cycle all over again.

Ultimately, addiction is the disease and AWS and PAWS are merely stages. Unfortunately, few addicts recognize or appreciate the difference, and therefore many are unprepared, do not have the proper expectations, do not work a daily recovery program and subsequently doom themselves to relapse. If this sounds like you or someone you love, the time to act is now. Each progressive relapse episode is generally more severe and damaging than the last as a result of what is known as the Kindling Effect, so there’s not a moment to waste.

Support Networks in Recovery From Addiction

Support networks must be made a critical component of an addict’s recovery plan in order to prevent relapse and maintain and improve emotional, mental and spiritual health. Recovering addicts that do not have a support network often become depressed, withdraw from social interactions and eventually return to using drugs in order to self-medicate their emotional pain. Consequently, understanding how support networks can benefit a recovery program and what types of networks are available is essential for people who are battling the disease of addiction or alcoholism.

Support Networks: Why They Work

There are 8 primary reasons why support networks are crucial for people in recovery:

1.) Fellowship

The power of fellowship is felt in nearly all groups that gather for a specific purpose; especially groups with powerful missions like those dedicated to the recovery of addicts and alcoholics. Humans are innately social creatures that need to be around other people that share the same goals and interests. And while there might not yet be enough scientific evidence to prove it, for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years mankind has recognized the power of fellowship; it’s a call that all humans respond to and this may be even truer for addicts that need to know they are not alone in their struggle.

2.) Friendly Observation

People in recovery sometimes struggle with issues of honesty regarding their desire to use or their actual drug use despite recovery efforts. Having a strong recovery-based support network serves as a safety net in this regard, as people within the group can recognize issues and signs of relapse or impending relapse among others in the group. In this way people can “keep an eye on each other.”

3.) Environment of Understanding

People in the general public often find it difficult or impossible to understand the true nature of the disease of addiction and fail to recognize how powerful it really is. By creating a recovery support network, an addict or alcoholic can ensure that the people they surround themselves with understand addiction and will therefore be less likely to judge, admonish or “feel sorry” for others that they know have a legitimate, neurological disease that requires a daily effort to overcome.

4.) The Power of Sharing

There is a great deal of power in sharing and we see this in many different ways in society, from the individual talking to a therapist, to those who take part in groups and organizations, to people who open up to their barber or stylist, we clearly see that sharing helps people. Sharing can relieve stress, create stronger relationships and allow people to “let go” of emotional and other pain that they otherwise would allow to fester and grow. And according to Dr. Barton Goldsmith, sharing with others helps give us new perspective;

“There will always be problems in our lives, but sometimes we don’t have the capacity to handle them all by ourselves. Getting a 360-degree view is impossible when all you can see is what’s going wrong. And talking with another person can give you perspective.” (Goldsmith, Barton, Ph.D. Talk About Your Problems, Please Psychology Today March 3, 2011)

5.) Emergencies

When an addict has an “emergency”, it often means they are about to relapse. For some, this could prove fatal, so prompt action is required. Addicts that have good support networks are able to rely on people within them to come to their aid in the event that they feel drug use or a return to drinking is imminent. Additionally, a person in recovery may be empowered and enlightened when another addict asks them for help when they feel like using.

6.) Confidence

The confidence that a strong recovery-oriented support network can provide is significant. Many addicts report that just knowing there are people that they can talk to and others who are like them that they can turn to in the event of trouble makes it much easier to deal with the daily problems that often stress addicts and alcoholics out. When it comes to relapse prevention, confidence is one of the most critical components of recovery stability.

7.) Education and Resources

The more people an addict has in their networks, the more likely it is that new and useful information will be passed among the various members. And the more education and resources an addict has access to, the more likely it is that they will acquire the right combination of knowledge and tools not only to stay clean for life, but to help others do so as well.

8.) Entertainment

Being part of a recovery-oriented network doesn’t mean that there’s no fun or entertainment involved. People in recovery can still do all of the fun things they want to do, provided others in the group want to participate. Fortunately there are many recovery-sensitive groups and organizations that arrange outings, events and so on in order to provide clean entertainment for its members. Remember; it’s as important to share a laugh with your networks as it is to share emotional pain.

Types/Components of Support Networks

Each addict’s complete support network structure is unique. Some addicts consciously build their support groups, while others are unsure of what groups and networks exist, how to join and what the benefits are. The following are 11 different components that in whole or in part make up the support networks of many people in recovery:

1.) 12 Step Programs

Groups like AA (Alcoholics Anonymous) and NA (Narcotics Anonymous) have provided the fellowship and support necessary to help thousands of people maintain their recovery, “one day at a time.” Both groups are founded on the principle of the discussion and sharing of experiences, usually pre-empted by the humbling statement of;

“Hi, my name is so-and-so, and I’m an addict.”

Many rehab centers and drug treatment programs use 12 Step programs as a basis for the continued recovery program of their patients upon graduation. While these groups are not for everyone, they are convenient in that they can be found in virtually every area of the country.

2.) Recovery-Specific Groups

Recovery specific groups are those that gather for a particular purpose or activity in order to have clean fun together. Often there isn’t any structure to the groups in the sense of recovery-oriented dialogue or practices- in most cases these groups are just people trying to live normal lives but who all happen to be in recovery. Examples of recovery-oriented groups include the infamous 5th Chapter motorcycle club and Young People in Recovery.

3.) Connections Made During Treatment

When addicts complete drug or alcohol treatment together, they often form lasting bonds that become a key part of their support system. Of course, these relationships should only be maintained if they are healthy. These can be especially powerful relationships because the parties are essentially on the same “level,” and are likely going through similar experiences related to post acute withdrawal, issues re-integrating with society, etc.

4.) Recovery Forums and Websites

Recovery forums and websites provide an additional opportunity to develop relationships, discuss issues, share experiences, collaborate, meet and take part in activities together and much more. Forums are also an excellent way to gather information and resources and to easily develop a support system that might not be available in certain areas- especially very small cities and towns.

5.) Family & Friends

Family and friends that support the addict’s recovery are possibly the most important part of a strong support system. From old friends that bring understanding, history and loyalty to new friends that have been acquired along the path to recovery, often these individuals can provide more emotional support than others. The same is true of family members, but people in recovery must beware to limit relationships with family members that were enablers or those who do not suppo
rt or take addiction recovery seriously. In many cases relationships with family members are cited as the cause of substance abuse, so it’s important to choose the family and friends that are permitted into a support network carefully and honestly.

6.) Spiritual & Religious Groups

Even if you don’t take part in organized religion, there are often groups within groups among these types of organizations. For instance, AA and NA 12 Step meetings are often held at churches or other spiritual gathering places. In fact, some religious groups sponsor these programs because their ideals are largely aligned.

7.) Rehab Alumni Associations

For addicts that attended and completed a rehab program, there may be an opportunity to join an alumni association for that particular treatment center. This is an excellent way to stay connected to the people who were influential in the early part of a person’s recovery, and to meet new people who are also living a life free from drugs or alcohol, one day at a time.

8.) Community Outreach Programs

Many communities have outreach programs for the disadvantaged, and this can include drug addicts in some cases. Programs can be as simple as the provision of a place to gather and meet, or it can include funding for specialized treatment, groups, therapy and other benefits. In order to find out if your community offers such programs, your town or city hall is an excellent place to start.

9.) Healthcare Professionals

Therapists, doctors, nurses, dieticians, massage therapists, chiropractors and many other types of healthcare professional play a central role in the support network of addicts and alcoholics in recovery. In fact, most people in recovery probably underutilize this source and fail to recognize the benefits. However, this group is likely one of the most important parts of a recovery support system considering that these professionals help to maintain the physical, mental and emotional health of an individual. Consequently it’s vital that people in recovery are open and honest with their healthcare professionals and alert them to any issues that could indicate a relapse is imminent.

10.) School/Educational Resources

If you’re a student, it’s likely that your school or university has special programs available for people who struggle with substance abuse and addiction. These programs could consist of therapy or counseling, the hosting of recovery-related groups, resources to get outside help and possibly funding for treatment. Additionally, other students may become part of a support network, as they are almost certainly experiencing the same stresses and issues related to schooling, social pressures and so on.

11.) Volunteer Organizations

By volunteering for any number of a wide range of organizations, people in recovery can help to give back what was given to them in the way of compassion, understanding, advice, resources, financial assistance, etc. But perhaps even more importantly, the interactions between other volunteers and organizers can blossom into significant meaningful relationships that can one day become a key part of a healthy support system.

If you’re an addict or alcoholic in recovery and you don’t have a support network, it’s imperative that you take action now and get involved. You can start with a simple search in Google for recovery related forums, or you can check the Yellow Pages for the nearest AA or NA meeting. Remember; if you go to the same lengths to stay clean as you once did to use, you’ll very quickly develop a strong network of link-minded, recovery-oriented people that will offer a mutually beneficial way to keep fighting the good fight, one day at a time.

Evils of Addiction

In a recent survey it was found that most cocaine addicts are working with reputed organizations at a fine post. Statistics also reveal that employees working in MNCs are more likely to try drugs like cocaine and heroin some time in their career as compared to students and professionals working in smaller offices. Most MNCs have therefore come up with their own drug and alcohol testing policies as per the OHS system.

Not only does this policy help in identifying drug abusers in the organization but also helps in keeping the employees away from drugs. The mere fear of being caught can cause an employee to steer clear of drugs like heroin and cocaine. 10 panel drug tests in workplaces has also helped a lot of people to get rid of their addiction problem. A workplace drug testing program helps the employers to understand the loopholes in the organization as well. The employee is of course sent to a rehab or a detox center in order to get proper treatment.

The Evils of Drugs

Excessive intake of drugs or frequent drug abuse can lead to addiction and once a person is hooked to a certain drug, he can cause some serious troubles for himself and the people around him. As far as the official point of view is concerned, a drug addict is no asset to the company because of the following reasons:

1. A drug addict is extremely careless with his work and is less likely to do it right
2. An employee hooked to drugs would have trouble taking quick decisions
3. A drug addict experiences severe drops in concentration levels
4. Shift in focus and craving for the drug at work can also lead to poor efficiency
5. If an employee comes to the office stoned, his behavior would not be proper to his colleagues and fellow employees
6. Some one who is addicted to drugs does not go unnoticed and can end up spoiling the name of the organization as a whole
7. An addict can cause people around him to fall into the world of addiction as well

There are a number of health related risks related to drug abuse as well. A drug like cocaine can destroy almost every organ in the human body and an overdose can even lead to death. Psychological problems like nervous breakdowns and extreme depression are common among drug addicts.

The worst part about drug addiction is that even when an addict knows that he is as depressed as he can ever be, he shows no intents of coming out of his addiction. Drugs have a firm grip on addicts and therefore treating a drug addict is a lengthy and tough task.

In MNCs and various other companies, drug and alcohol testing is a monthly affair. Drug and alcohol testing is also important in order for the employers to make sure that they are offering a safe and healthy work environment to the employees. In most offices a 10 panel drug test is conducted in order to make sure that the employees are not on drugs.

Tips to Conduct an Effective Drug Testing Program

The main purpose of conducting a drug testing program is to ensure that the dangerous habit of drug abuse is completely eliminated among the people. But to achieve the desired positive results, the program should be effective. And for effective implementation of this program, there are certain aspects to be taken care of. Here are a few tips that enable effective implementation of the program.

Explain the importance:

Teachers, parents, employers or any other personnel conducting the drug testing program should make it clear to the suspects that the purpose of the program is to ensure better and healthy living of the individual. It is their duty to explain the benefits of detecting and preventing the drug abusing habit. By doing so, the individuals will be encouraged to take the test without any inhibitions.

Determine the best method:

Drug testing methods are classified into different types depending on the sample used – hair, saliva, urine and blood. Of these methods, choose a method that is convenient. The convenience of the test should be judged in terms of ease of conducting and effectiveness in giving reliable results.

Be aware of drug detection windows:

Knowing drug detection windows is important for effective implementation of the program because, the drug detection periods vary from sample to sample and from drug to drug. For example, in case of amphetamines the drug detection period is 1 to 3 days in urine, 24 hours in blood, 90 days in hair and 0-24 hours in saliva.

Implement preventive methods to avoid sample alteration:

There is a probability that the suspects adulterate or manipulate (alter) test samples. Hence, make sure that the testing area/room does not contain any kind of materials/solvents which can be used to adulterate the test sample. It is also important that while collecting test samples, the donors should be monitored.

Use reliable test kits:

The effectiveness of the program is also dependent on the effectiveness of the equipment. Since testing at schools or workplaces requires on-site testing tools, drug test kits are recommended. These kits can also be used for home drug testing as they ensure privacy of results. These kits are cost effective, fast, safe, accurate and reliable. They are of different types based on the specimen used (saliva, urine, hair, etc.) and the design of kits (cups or strips). FDA approved kits give accurate results as they abide by the SAMHSA cut-off levels.

An effectively implemented drug testing program not only fetches accurate results but also plays a vital role in eliminating the habit of drug abuse.

Shakespeare on Addiction: Sonnet 129

Something interesting happens every time I teach Shakespeare’s Sonnet 129. I’m reasonably certain the term “sex addiction” didn’t exist in his day – and neither did 12 step groups for it, with Elizabethans turning up in their flamboyant garb – but that doesn’t mean that the problem, and its attendant degradations, didn’t exist. Just ask Shakespeare about his Dark Lady.***

The expense of spirit in a waste of shame

Is lust in action; and till action, lust

Is perjured, murderous, bloody, full of blame,

Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust,

Enjoy’d no sooner but despised straight,

Past reason hunted, and no sooner had

Past reason hated, as a swallow’d bait

On purpose laid to make the taker mad;

Mad in pursuit and in possession so;

Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme;

A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe;

Before, a joy proposed; behind, a dream.

All this the world well knows; yet none knows well

To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell.

Why am I thinking about sonnet 129? Shakespeare’s sonnets beg for interpretation, and it’s not just because they are formal masterpieces that we should, as intelligent folk, feel compelled to dissect for dissection’s sake. No, there’s more to them than that. His sonnets are relevant today and I’m going to show you why.

A few years ago, I came across an hour long documentary made about Vancouver’s notorious downtown eastside. The area has been ravaged by an influx of drugs and its victims, earning it a reputation for being something of an elephants’ graveyard: it’s where addicts go to die. The film was called Through a Blue Lens and was shot, mostly, by two beat cops who wanted to portray the lives of the addicts living there. It’s not a warm and fuzzy film about drug addiction, but it’s not condemnatory either. Here’s an excerpt:

The plight of those living in that part of Vancouver became a minor cause célèbre in 1999, in part because The Globe and Mail published a photo essay of its denizens that left a lot of Canadians gasping. It made us aware, in a none-too-gentle way, that we had inner city problems just as bad as some cities south of the border. Vancouver’s port is a gateway for the drug trade and it seems at least some of these drugs don’t travel far: they form the lifeblood of those immiserated souls living in the downtown area.

So why look at Canada’s Skid Row when we’re talking about Shakespeare? It’s because his definition of addiction is one of the best I’ve ever read. It’s relevant today and that’s because when addicts talk about their suffering, they report (albeit less eloquently) many of the same things. And when I say things, I mean they report having many of the same feelings and experiences described by Shakespeare. Those haunting sounds of agony — the addict’s anguish — are distilled, painfully and thoroughly, in this poem.

It begins:

The expense of spirit in a waste of shame

Shakespeare believes we forfeit our spirit – our soul – when we engage in addictive behaviour. The expense, or the price of the addiction, is paid with it. Waste here is used literally (implying that lives are wasted by addiction) and also symbolically to denote a place. This double meaning is made obvious by the use of the preposition in, as “in” a waste of shame. Waste as a place bookends neatly with that other inferno, hell, mentioned in the closing couplet.

Lust is Shakespeare’s drug of choice and the belief is that it was aimed at the infamous Dark Lady, that promiscuous creature that had Shakespeare, and others, utterly intoxicated.

The expense of spirit in a waste of shame

Is lust in action; and till action, lust

Is perjured, murderous, bloody, full of blame,

Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust

What are the signs of Shakespeare’s enslavement? The form of a sonnet is strictly prescribed: it is made up of three quatrains — three groups of four lines — and a closing couplet. The rhyme scheme tends to alternate lines, meaning the first line rhymes with the third, the second with the fourth, etc. The lines are usually made up of phrases that go towards forming sentences. However, in this quatrain, the last half is simply a list of adjectives or adjective phrases, enumerating Shakespeare’s agonies. And these agonies are stated strongly, with words like murderous, bloody, savage and extreme.

This is a man in the throes of an obsession, an obsession that won’t even allow him to form coherent thoughts; instead he spits out a list of adjectives to convey his feelings. Shakespeare the wordsmith created this list for a reason. It’s there to denote a burst of feeling that can’t be contained.

But does this fury of Shakespeare’s capture the state of those sad and emaciated souls wandering the downtown eastside? I would argue it does and the key word here is shame. Ask any active addict how they feel about their life and you are bound to discover, underneath the anger and street braggadocio, a deep and murky well of it. That shame is what keeps them using; it’s what keeps them from wanting to feel.

After Shakespeare establishes his narrative voice, he turns to the cyclical nature of his malady. In the second quatrain, he states:

Enjoy’d no sooner but despised straight,

Past reason hunted, and no sooner had

Past reason hated, as a swallow’d bait

On purpose laid to make the taker mad;

Here we see the structural and thematic rendering of the cycle of addiction. Let me translate: the addict no sooner enjoys (uses) her drug when she starts to despise its consequences straight (right away). However, beyond all reason she continues to hunt for it, and again, as soon as she consumes it, she hates it beyond all reason because she can’t stop. Then Shakespeare expands the subtle animal imagery and lays blame on suppliers and enablers. Her drug is like a trap laid on purpose and it makes her, the taker, mad. Mad here is being used in the British sense of the word, meaning insane.

It’s usually at this point in my class that I stop and ask students to think of an activity, any activity, they do to excess. Do they spend too much time online? Eat too much of the wrong kind of food? Text incessantly? And it’s also here that I tell them my own little story of addiction, the one that had me frequently rushing to the neighbourhood corner store, in Toronto, when I was a student.

I had an addiction and it was to Swedish Berries, those soft red candies that taste heavenly but are of no nutritional value whatever. These darlings came in handy at midnight when I had an essay to finish and needed a sugar boost. However, the problem was that I didn’t know when to stop. The store sold them in bulk and I didn’t have the discipline to buy only a few. My reasoning, as I stood in front of that bin and ladled in scoop after scoop, was that I would save some for later.

Right.

So I would eat them until I felt sick and this process, over the last two years of my undergrad degree, repeated itself more times than I care to remember. But it was the sequence of events in this process that was important. I would come to the realization it was late. I knew I had to keep working but didn’t want coffee. Then I would think: Hey! Swedish Berries! Great idea! And I would haul myself off to the store, come back and eat way too many of them. Only afterwards would I say to myself: “Did I really have to scarf down that whole bag?” Or: “Good idea? What was I thinking?”

So too goes the cycle of addiction: there is the chase, the consummation and the aftermath. In other words, the anticipation, the imbibing and the remorse. This cycle will be expanded upon in the next quatrain.

Mad in pursuit and in possession so;

Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme;

A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe;

Before, a joy proposed; behind, a dream.

The first quatrain establishes, through the use of enumeration, Shakespeare’s lo
ss of control. The second establishes the cyclical nature of his addiction. This last is significant because it does not provide new information. However, it does repeat the three part cycle and repetition in Shakespeare is always significant: he uses it to let us know we need to pay attention. Here we are told, again and with more emphasis, that an addict is mad while chasing the drug and mad while consuming it. And of course it is that madness — that inability to reason — that starts the cycle all over again.

But take a look at the second line. Shakespeare reverses the order of the cycle: he starts with the aftermath: had, moves to the consummation: having, and then moves to the first stage of the cycle, the chase: in quest to have. He does this to create the impression of a back-and-forth motion: the addict moves forward and backward, forward and backward, ad infinitum. Why? Because that’s what happens when one becomes addicted: life stalls.

At the start of this article, I said something interesting happens every time I teach this sonnet. Here it is: after I read it out loud, I tell my students to look closely at the panhandlers, especially the young ones, when they pass through the Atwater metro, the metro that services Dawson. I almost always get the same reaction: the class goes silent, the flow of air in the room stops, and these young people, with their futures ahead of them, pay closer attention. This suffering, rendered so poetically by Shakespeare, is only steps away.

And it happens elsewhere. When I drive home, I stop at a busy intersection leading onto the highway. That’s where I often see a young woman, her blonde hair in dreadlocks, holding up a sign asking for spare change. I always give her some and now she knows to come to me. If the traffic light permits, we may even exchange a few words.

I’ve been criticized for doing this — “she’ll just spend the money on drugs” is what I hear — but I don’t know what else to do. I don’t know how we can stop people from “committing suicide on the installment plan,” as a good friend of mine puts it.

Shakespeare didn’t know either, but luckily for us, that didn’t stop him from looking deeply into that darkness and writing about it anyway.

***I will be, for the sake of brevity and compression, be referring to the narrator as Shakespeare.

How To Spot Cocaine Addiction

There is no definitive way to spot if someone you know has an addiction to cocaine, but if you suspect that this may be the case, then there are some signs that you should be looking out for. Some are easier to spot than others.

If the individual in question seems to be getting a lot of nosebleeds, and this was never the case previously, then this should be a cause for concern. Nosebleeds are one of the classic signs that a person is using large amounts of cocaine on a regular basis, as the drug will begin to damage or even destroy the lining of the nasal passages. A runny or blocked nose can also occur with regular use of cocaine, and may actually present as symptoms before the nosebleeds begin.

The person in question may be undergoing a dramatic change in personality, losing interest in people that they would previously have seen on a regular basis, and giving up on activities that they used to enjoy. Cocaine has become the most important thing in the life of the addict, replacing everything else.

A common feature of people addicted to cocaine, and sometimes other drugs as well, is that they will stop going to work, school or college, and may end up losing their job if the situation becomes too bad. Linked to this may be financial problems, which are bound to become worse if they do lose their job. An addict will think nothing of spending all the money they have to obtain more cocaine, which may not be immediately obvious. However, if you notice that they are looking to borrow money or sell their possessions, then this should be a very big cause for concern.

Changes in mood can also be a sign of cocaine use and addiction. When cocaine has been taken recently, a person will tend to be extremely happy and talkative, chatting regardless of whether anybody is paying attention or not. This is known as a cocaine high, and can last anywhere between fifteen and thirty minutes. Once the feeling of being high has worn off, the cocaine user will feel short of energy, possibly depressed, and a lack of mental clarity may set in. The only way to prevent this from happening is to take some more cocaine, and it will be apparent that this is the case if the person disappears to find some privacy. If cocaine has been used over a long period of time, in large amounts, then it is likely that the person will sleep excessively for several days.

If excessive amounts of cocaine have been used over an extended period of time, then it is possible that paranoia can begin to set in. Sometimes, panic attacks can occur, with symptoms of chest pains and heavy sweating. A normal social setting may also cause feelings of anxiety.

Another sign that may indicate a drug addiction, whether cocaine or something else, is if the person has largely replaced all of their friends with new people that you have not met before. This is because a drug addict will begin to spend time with other drug addicts, who will not ask questions or try to prevent drugs from being used. When a friend begins to take drugs and forms an addiction, this is always going to be a difficult situation.

If cocaine is used for a long period of time, then you will start to notice physical differences in the person. One of the most obvious will be weight loss. Cocaine reduces the appetite dramatically, so as the drug use increases, the amount of food being eaten will drop rapidly. Weight loss is a classic symptom of cocaine use and abuse.

Signs and Symptoms of Teen Drug Abuse

Teenagers are highly susceptible to drug abuse. Unaware of the risks associated, teens initiate and continue drug abusing habits risking their precious lives. Parents should keep an eye on their children and looks for signs and symptoms of drug abuse to save them from this harmful habit.

Following are warning signs and symptoms that indicate teen drug abuse:

Physical and health issues:

Intake of drugs by teens, mostly affects the brain. The brain is still in a developing stage till the age of 25 years. Therefore, when teens use harmful drugs like nicotine, cocaine, marijuana, ecstasy or any other illicit substances, they quickly get addicted to it when compared to adults.

Other physical and health issues that are associated with drug abuse are:

•Kidney, liver and heart failure
•Red and glazed eyes
•Weight loss or weight gain
•Coughing
•Sweating
•Fatigue
•Running nose
•Dental problems

Changes in appetite:

Teenagers addicted or prone to drug abuse, either eat more or less than they need. You can notice change in their eating habits. You will also notice that either the teen has gained or lost weight. Some other drastic changes that may indicate drug abuse in teens are, change in sleep pattern and hobbies, angry outbursts and clothing style.

Depression, anxiety or moodiness:

Many teens use drugs to feel the high. But they are unaware that using drugs will deal with problems such as anxiety, depression and mood swings. Sudden behavioral changes in teens could be a sign of hormonal changes or it could be due to drug abuse. Pay attention to such sudden and drastic changes in teens, as it could be an indication that they are in trouble and need help from their loved ones.

Neglecting physical appearance:

Normally teens are very conscious and concerned about their physical appearance, grooming, clothing and personal hygiene. Teens who abuse drugs often focus less on their physical appearance. They don’t want to maintain even their personal hygiene and cleanliness. They don’t care about the way they look.

Change in friends:

Teenagers addicted to drugs drop regular old friends. They join new groups of friends. The change in friends and new hangouts, and getting very secretive about the new friends, is a clear indication that the teen is with a wrong group of friends, who will encourage the teen to experience drugs.

Unexplained need for money:

Illicit drugs are expensive. Teens consuming illicit drugs may ask for money quite often, without giving any specific reason. Their unexplained need for money, if not fulfilled, may lead to loss of money from their parents’ wallet, valuables missing from home or borrowing money from friends and relatives. Parents should keep a close watch on their teens, when it comes to money matters.

To detect/confirm drug abuse, use reliable drug test kits:

On discovering your teen abusing illicit drugs, you can prevent situation from worsening, by detecting/confirming drug abuse in the privacy of your home, by using reliable, accurate, fast and FDA-approved drug test kits.

What Is the Drug, Bath Salts?

Marketed under various names, including, “Bath Salts”, “Ivory Wave,” “Purple Wave,” Vanilla Sky,” and “Bliss”, the drug, MDPV has been the cause of numerous emergency room visits and thousands of calls to the Centers for Disease Control and Poison Control Centers over the last couple of years.

Bath Salts is actually a powerful stimulant that also has hallucinogenic properties. A relatively new psychotropic drug, it reportedly creates effects similar to other stimulants such as wakefulness, rapid heartbeat, reduction in appetite and anxiety.

However, this substance causes other, more worrisome and dangerous effects such as psychotic delusions, thoughts of suicide and violent behavior.

Are they really for the bath tub?

No, they’re not. They are labelled that way to avoid legal restrictions. Each packet is even clearly marked with, “Not For Human Consumption”, making it difficult to classify them as drugs. But the real purpose is definitely substance abuse. These packets contain various drugs, including the compound 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) or 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone). A dangerous designer drug, MDPV is popular with teens and some in the military because it doesn’t show on drug tests.

A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control, between November 2010 and April 2011 in one county in Michigan, 35 persons who had ingested, inhaled, or injected “bath salts” visited a Michigan emergency department. Among the 35 patients, the most com­mon signs and symptoms of toxicity were agitation (23 patients [66%]), tachycardia (22 [63%]), and delusions/hallucinations (14 [40%]). Seventeen patients were hospitalized, and one was dead upon arrival at the ED.

So how can a product as apparently dangerous as this be sold legally to the public?

Any product sold in the United States that is classified as a drug must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The product is then classified according to criteria such as likelihood of abuse, it’s addictive potentials or any possible medicinal value. Then it can be sorted into one of several categories.

When a substance does not pass review along these guidelines, they are classified in the Schedule One category. These substances are not legal for any purpose.

But what if it’s NOT a drug? What if it is only an additive for the bath tub? Now special legislation is needed to outlaw it. This is the case with several of these new substances of abuse, bath salts is only one. Another is called “Spice”. Also known as K-2, spice is a drug that is labelled as incense in order to bypass legal requirements of a drug.

Many states have passed emergency legislation to outlaw these specific chemicals, but the makers just alter the compounds slightly, just enough to again slip through the legal nets.

Our best bet in the fight against these tactics is simply this, make the public aware of the dangers and very real consequences of using these chemicals. If enough truth about bath salts and spice or whatever comes next is pumped into the environment, repeatedly, we’ll see this latest and nearly craziest drug fad fade away and become a joke like “smoking banana peels” became back in the ’60s..

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